Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh - Solar Pumps Tool | Solar Pumps Tool

Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

It has a relatively small proportion of its net sown area unirrigated, indicating poor irrigation demand. The average monthly per capita expenditure of rural agricultural households is relatively low for the district, suggesting poor purchasing capacity of the farmers here. There is a comparatively high level of farm mechanization in the district, implying a positive outlook towards progressive technologies amongst the farmers. The district has a relatively high proportion of small and marginal farmers.

Deployment Approaches

Approaches Feasibility
Individually owned off-grid solar pumps Limited Suitability
Solarisation of feeders Limited Suitability
Solar based water as a service Not Suitable
Promote 1 HP and sub-HP pumps Not Suitable

Individually owned off-grid solar pumps

Limited Suitability

The district has a relatively high disbursement of institutional credit and a comparatively high concentration of diesel pump users. However, ground water availability is below the safe limit, and crop revenue per holding is low, making it very difficult to promote the private ownership of solar pumps here.

Parameter Value Percentile
Number of cultivators reporting use of diesel pumps 60,207 79
Water Availability Index 0.34 27
Crop revenue per holding (INR) 28,353 18
Medium and long term institutional credit disbursed in a year (in INR Crore) 37.2 54

Solarisation of feeders

Limited Suitability

The district has a comparatively high extent of feeder segregation, and its DISCOM has a high bulk power purchase rate. But, a relatively low penetration of electric pumps means that solarisation of the feeders would not help in increasing the deployment of solar for irrigation.

Parameter Value Percentile
Power purchase rate for DISCOM (INR/kWh) 4.37 79
Extent of feeder segregation 100% 69
Proportion of cultivators reporting use of electric pumps 0% 0

Solar based water as a service

Not Suitable

The concentration of small and marginal farmers is rather high in the district, but groundwater availability is below the safe limit. In addition, a relatively low proportion of unirrigated area makes it very difficult to promote solar-based irrigation through the water-as-a-service model here, unless it undercuts the price of water from existing sources, and improves water utilisation through promotion of micro-irrigation.

Parameter Value Percentile
Water Availability Index 0.34 27
Proportion of small and marginal cultivators 99% 96
Unirrigated net sown area as a share of total net sown area 15% 17

Promote 1 HP and sub-HP pumps

Not Suitable

The district has a rather high concentration of marginal farmers. But, a relatively low proportion of horticulture crops under gross cropped area, a comparatively low disbursement of institutional credit to marginal farmers, and groundwater availability below the safe limit make it extremely difficult to promote 1 HP and sub-HP pumps here. Such pumps can be promoted only if clubbed with micro-irrigation along with support to farmers for pump adoption and undertaking horticulture.

Parameter Value Percentile
Area under horticulture crops as a share of gross cropped area 5% 45
Water Availability Index 0.34 27
Proportion of marginal cultivators 94% 96
Medium and long term institutional credit disbursed in a year (in INR Crore) 37.2 54

Leveraging Solar Pumps to Promote Policy Objectives

If you are deploying solar pumps in this district then you can further these policy objectives.

Doubling Farmers’ Income – Capital Investment

Given the high concentration of small and marginal farmers, and their relatively better access to institutional credit, the district is suitable for doubling farmers’ income through capital investment. Solar pumps could be one of the farm technologies to invest in for farmers, especially 1 HP or sub-HP pumps for marginal farmers.

Parameter Value Percentile
Proportion of small and marginal cultivators 99% 96
Medium and long-term institutional credit disbursed in a year to small and marginal cultivators (in INR Crore) 37.2 54

Doubling Farmers’ Income – Crop Diversification

In the district, horticulture crops occupy a relatively low proportion of gross cropped area, indicating an opportunity for growing more high value non-staple crops. Solar-powered irrigation could be an alternative source of reliable irrigation, making it easier to achieve crop diversification and enhance farmers’ incomes.

Parameter Value Percentile
Area under horticulture crops as a share of gross cropped area 5% 45

National Mission on Oilseeds and Oil Palm (NMOOP)

The relatively low share of oilseeds and oil palm crops under gross sown area in the district makes it a suitable candidate for promoting NMOOP. Solar pumps could meet irrigation needs for these crops and help farmers diversify their yields beyond cereals.

Parameter Value Percentile
Area under oilseeds as a share of total cropped area 1% 19

Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh
Summary
Number of operational holdings
267,495
Average size of operational holding (Ha)
0.4
No. of cultivators using diesel pumps
60,207
No. of cultivators using electric pumps
61
Parameters (value, percentile)
Unirrigated net sown area ('000 ha)
14
19
Area under horticulture crops as a share of gross cropped area
5%
45
Water Availability Index
0.34
27
Monthly per capita expenditure of rural agricultural households (INR)
961
24
Crop revenue per holding (INR)
28,353
18
No. of rural and semi-urban bank branches per 10,000 farmers
7.48
51
Medium and long-term institutional credit disbursed in a year (in INR Crore)
37.2
54
No. of calls made at Kisan Call Centre (between 1.1.2011 - 31.12.2015)
1,779
59
Level of farm mechanisation (tractors, harvesters, threshers per ha)
1.26
93