Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh | Solar Pumps Tool Made with Humane Club

Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh

Overall, the water availability for irrigation in the district (based on ground water development and long-term trends of water level decline) is critical since the resource is overexploited, jeopardizing the long-term sustainability of solar pumps. For average crop revenue per holding, the district appears among the top 25 percentile of districts, implying higher investment capacity of the farmers here. It has a relatively low penetration of banks in rural and semi-rural areas, impeding access to institutional credit for farmers. The district appears in the group of districts, which are (very) highly vulnerable towards climate change, as per an index constructed by CRIDA.

Deployment Approaches

Approaches Feasibility
Individually owned off-grid solar pumps Limited Suitability
Solarisation of feeders Limited Suitability
Solar based water as a service Not Suitable
Promote 1 HP and sub-HP pumps Not Suitable
Solarisation of individual grid-connected pumps Not suitable

Individually owned off-grid solar pumps

Limited Suitability

The district has high crop revenue per holding, and a high concentration of diesel pump users. But, disbursement of institutional credit is low and ground water availability is below the safe limit, making it very difficult to promote the private ownership of solar pumps here.

Parameter Value Percentile
Number of cultivators reporting use of diesel pumps 43,367 72
Water Availability Index 0.25 17
Crop revenue per holding (INR) 187,586 83
Medium and long term institutional credit disbursed in a year (in INR Crore) 83.1 65

Solarisation of feeders

Limited Suitability

The district has a relatively high penetration of electric pumps and a comparatively high extent of feeder segregation but its DISCOM incurs a relatively low cost for supplying power. As the power purchase rate of the DISCOM increases going forward, solarisation of the feeders may become economically viable in the district.

Parameter Value Percentile
Actual cost of power supply (INR/kWh) 5.64 33
Extent of feeder segregation 100% 69
Proportion of cultivators reporting use of electric pumps 51% 92

Solar based water as a service

Not Suitable

The district has a rather low concentration of small and marginal farmers and a relatively low proportion of unirrigated area. Moreover, groundwater availability is below the safe limit, making it extremely difficult to promote solar-based irrigation through the water-as-a-service model here.

Parameter Value Percentile
Water Availability Index 0.25 17
Proportion of small and marginal cultivators 64% 16
Unirrigated net sown area as a share of total net sown area 42% 35

Promote 1 HP and sub-HP pumps

Not Suitable

Groundwater availability in the district is below the safe limit, the concentration of marginal farmers is rather low, disbursement of institutional credit to marginal farmers is also comparatively low, and the proportion of horticulture crops under gross cropped area is relatively low, making it extremely difficult to promote 1 HP and sub-HP pumps here.

Parameter Value Percentile
Area under horticulture crops as a share of gross cropped area 6% 53
Water Availability Index 0.25 17
Proportion of marginal cultivators 38% 21
Medium and long term institutional credit disbursed in a year (in INR Crore) 83.1 65

Solarisation of individual grid-connected pumps

Not suitable

The district has a relatively high penetration of electric pumps, ground water available within the safe limits and a comparatively high extent of feeder segregation but agriculture power subsidy is not very significant. Further with the groundwater availability below the safe limits, solarisation of individual grid-connected pumps may not be the right approach for the district

Parameter Value Percentile
Water Availability Index 0.25 17
Actual cost of power supply (INR/kWh) 5.64 33
Extent of feeder segregation 100% 69

Leveraging Solar Pumps to Promote Policy Objectives

If you are deploying solar pumps in this district then you can further these policy objectives.

Doubling Farmers’ Income – Crop Diversification

In the district, horticulture crops occupy a relatively low proportion of gross cropped area, indicating an opportunity for growing more high value non-staple crops. Solar-powered irrigation could be an alternative source of reliable irrigation, making it easier to achieve crop diversification and enhance farmers’ incomes.

Parameter Value Percentile
Area under horticulture crops as a share of gross cropped area 6% 53

Per Drop More Crop

In the district, crops suitable for drip and sprinkler irrigation occupy a relatively high proportion of gross cropped area, making it easy to adopt such high precision irrigation methods. Solar pumps, along with other efficient and precise water application devices, could be deployed under Per Drop More Crop to promote efficient irrigation.

Parameter Value Percentile
Area under crops suitable for drip and sprinkler irrigation as a share of total cropped area 57% 90

Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh
Summary
Number of operational holdings
231,956
Average size of operational holding (Ha)
2.21
No. of cultivators using diesel pumps
43,367
No. of cultivators using electric pumps
117,558
Parameters (value, percentile)
Unirrigated net sown area ('000 ha)
208
81
Area under horticulture crops as a share of gross cropped area
6%
53
Water Availability Index
0.25
17
Monthly per capita expenditure of rural agricultural households (INR)
1,333
59
Crop revenue per holding (INR)
187,586
83
No. of rural and semi-urban bank branches per 10,000 farmers
4.87
24
Medium and long-term institutional credit disbursed in a year (in INR Crore)
83.1
65
No. of calls made at Kisan Call Centre (between 1.1.2011 - 31.12.2015)
1,944
62
Level of farm mechanisation (tractors, harvesters, threshers per ha)
0.32
56

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