Sonbhadra, Uttar Pradesh | Solar Pumps Tool Made with Humane Club

Sonbhadra, Uttar Pradesh

Horticulture crops occupy a relatively low proportion of gross cropped area in the district, diminishing the economic viability of solar pumps here. Overall, water availability for irrigation in the district (based on ground water development and long-term trends of water level decline) is within the safe limit, enhancing long-term sustainability of solar pumps. The average monthly per capita expenditure of rural agricultural households is relatively low for the district, suggesting poor purchasing capacity of the farmers here. There is a comparatively high level of farm mechanization in the district, implying a positive outlook towards progressive technologies amongst the farmers. The district appears in the group of districts, which are (very) highly vulnerable towards climate change, as per an index constructed by CRIDA.

Deployment Approaches

Approaches Feasibility
Individually owned off-grid solar pumps Limited Suitability
Solarisation of feeders Suitable
Solar based water as a service Limited Suitability
Promote 1 HP and sub-HP pumps Limited Suitability
Solarisation of individual grid-connected pumps Suitable

Individually owned off-grid solar pumps

Limited Suitability

The district has ground water available within the safe limit, a comparatively high concentration of diesel pump users, and a relatively high disbursement of institutional credit, but low crop revenue per holding. Greater support, either through subsidies or credit, would be required to enable farmers to adopt solar pumps.

Parameter Value Percentile
Number of cultivators reporting use of diesel pumps 63,372 80
Water Availability Index 0.95 91
Crop revenue per holding (INR) 33,762 22
Medium and long term institutional credit disbursed in a year (in INR Crore) 48.6 58

Solarisation of feeders

Suitable

Given the relatively high cost of power supply for the respective DISCOM, a comparatively high extent of feeder segregation, and a high penetration of electric pumps, solarisation of the feeders would be a recommended way to promote solar-powered irrigation in the district. It would ensure the rapid and cost effective solarisation of irrigation power at a large scale.

Parameter Value Percentile
Actual cost of power supply (INR/kWh) 6.14 65
Extent of feeder segregation 100% 69
Proportion of cultivators reporting use of electric pumps 13% 61

Solar based water as a service

Limited Suitability

Groundwater availability in the district is within the safe limit. But, a rather low concentration of small and marginal farmers and a relatively low proportion of unirrigated area make it difficult to promote solar-based irrigation through the water-as-a-service model here.

Parameter Value Percentile
Water Availability Index 0.95 91
Proportion of small and marginal cultivators 85% 48
Unirrigated net sown area as a share of total net sown area 77% 67

Promote 1 HP and sub-HP pumps

Limited Suitability

The district has groundwater availability within safe limit, a rather high concentration of marginal farmers, and a comparatively high disbursement of institutional credit to marginal farmers, but the proportion gross cropped area under horticulture crops is relatively low. Farmers should be incentivised to grow horticulture crops based on the agro-economic suitability of the region and market linkages to improve their revenue, making small sized pumps viable, by improving their capacity utilisation.

Parameter Value Percentile
Area under horticulture crops as a share of gross cropped area 2% 29
Water Availability Index 0.95 91
Proportion of marginal cultivators 68% 56
Medium and long term institutional credit disbursed in a year (in INR Crore) 48.6 58

Solarisation of individual grid-connected pumps

Suitable

Given the relatively high rate of power subsidy for agriculture consumers, a comparatively high extent of feeder segregation, ground water available within the safe limits and a high penetration of electric pumps, solarisation of individual grid-connected pumps would be a recommended way to promote solar-powered irrigation in the district. It would ensure the rapid and cost effective solarisation of irrigation power at a large scale.

Parameter Value Percentile
Water Availability Index 0.95 91
Actual cost of power supply (INR/kWh) 6.14 65
Extent of feeder segregation 100% 69

Leveraging Solar Pumps to Promote Policy Objectives

If you are deploying solar pumps in this district then you can further these policy objectives.

Doubling Farmers’ Income – Crop Diversification

In the district, horticulture crops occupy a relatively low proportion of gross cropped area, indicating an opportunity for growing more high value non-staple crops. Solar-powered irrigation could be an alternative source of reliable irrigation, making it easier to achieve crop diversification and enhance farmers’ incomes.

Parameter Value Percentile
Area under horticulture crops as a share of gross cropped area 2% 29

Sonbhadra, Uttar Pradesh
Summary
Number of operational holdings
195,666
Average size of operational holding (Ha)
1.16
No. of cultivators using diesel pumps
63,372
No. of cultivators using electric pumps
25,522
Parameters (value, percentile)
Unirrigated net sown area ('000 ha)
133
71
Area under horticulture crops as a share of gross cropped area
2%
29
Water Availability Index
0.95
91
Monthly per capita expenditure of rural agricultural households (INR)
971
24
Crop revenue per holding (INR)
33,762
22
No. of rural and semi-urban bank branches per 10,000 farmers
8.23
57
Medium and long-term institutional credit disbursed in a year (in INR Crore)
48.6
58
No. of calls made at Kisan Call Centre (between 1.1.2011 - 31.12.2015)
2,113
65
Level of farm mechanisation (tractors, harvesters, threshers per ha)
0.69
80

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