Shimoga, Karnataka | Solar Pumps Tool Made with Humane Club

Shimoga, Karnataka

In the district, horticulture crops occupy a relatively high proportion of gross cropped area, raising the economic viability of solar pumps here. Overall, water availability for irrigation in the district (based on ground water development and long-term trends of water level decline) is within the safe limit, enhancing long-term sustainability of solar pumps. The average monthly per capita expenditure of rural agricultural households is relatively high for the district, suggesting higher purchasing capacity of the farmers here. For average crop revenue per holding, the district appears among the top 25 percentile of districts, implying higher investment capacity of the farmers here. The number of medium and long-term institutional loans disbursed in the district is comparatively large, suggesting the availability of credit amongst farmers for potential investments. The district has a relatively high proportion of small and marginal farmers. The district appears in the group of districts, which show (very) low vulnerability towards climate change, as per an index constructed by CRIDA.

Deployment Approaches

Approaches Feasibility
Individually owned off-grid solar pumps Limited Suitability
Solarisation of feeders Limited Suitability
Solar based water as a service Limited Suitability
Promote 1 HP and sub-HP pumps Limited Suitability
Solarisation of individual grid-connected pumps Limited suitability

Individually owned off-grid solar pumps

Limited Suitability

The district has ground water available within the safe limit, high crop revenue per holding, and a relatively high disbursement of institutional credit, but has a comparatively low concentration of diesel pump users, indicating potentially low demand for the private ownership of solar pumps.

Parameter Value Percentile
Number of cultivators reporting use of diesel pumps 9,575 40
Water Availability Index 1 100
Crop revenue per holding (INR) 1,314,584 100
Medium and long term institutional credit disbursed in a year (in INR Crore) 119.8 70

Solarisation of feeders

Limited Suitability

The district has a relatively high penetration of electric pumps and a comparatively high extent of feeder segregation but its DISCOM incurs a relatively low cost for supplying power. As the power purchase rate of the DISCOM increases going forward, solarisation of the feeders may become economically viable in the district.

Parameter Value Percentile
Actual cost of power supply (INR/kWh) 5.17 17
Extent of feeder segregation
Proportion of cultivators reporting use of electric pumps 15% 63

Solar based water as a service

Limited Suitability

Groundwater availability in the district is within safe limit and the concentration of small and marginal farmers is comparatively high, but the proportion of unirrigated area is relatively low. A solar-based water service will have to compete with existing sources of irrigation.

Parameter Value Percentile
Water Availability Index 1 100
Proportion of small and marginal cultivators 85% 48
Unirrigated net sown area as a share of total net sown area 35% 30

Promote 1 HP and sub-HP pumps

Limited Suitability

The district has a relatively high proportion of horticulture crops under gross cropped area, groundwater availability within the safe limit and a comparatively high disbursement of institutional credit to marginal farmers. But, the proportion of marginal farmers is rather low in the district, suggesting low demand for small-sized pumps.

Parameter Value Percentile
Area under horticulture crops as a share of gross cropped area 33% 89
Water Availability Index 1 100
Proportion of marginal cultivators 59% 43
Medium and long term institutional credit disbursed in a year (in INR Crore) 119.8 70

Solarisation of individual grid-connected pumps

Limited suitability

The district has a relatively high penetration of electric pumps, ground water available within the safe limits and a comparatively high extent of feeder segregation. But the relatively low power subsidy for agriculural consumers make solarisation of individual grid-connected pumps an inefficient way of enhancing solar pumps in the district.

Parameter Value Percentile
Water Availability Index 1 100
Actual cost of power supply (INR/kWh) 5.17 17
Extent of feeder segregation

Leveraging Solar Pumps to Promote Policy Objectives

If you are deploying solar pumps in this district then you can further these policy objectives.

Doubling Farmers’ Income – Capital Investment

Given the high concentration of small and marginal farmers, and their relatively better access to institutional credit, the district is suitable for doubling farmers’ income through capital investment. Solar pumps could be one of the farm technologies to invest in for farmers, especially 1 HP or sub-HP pumps for marginal farmers.

Parameter Value Percentile
Proportion of small and marginal cultivators 85% 48
Medium and long-term institutional credit disbursed in a year to small and marginal cultivators (in INR Crore) 119.8 70

National Mission on Oilseeds and Oil Palm (NMOOP)

The relatively low share of oilseeds and oil palm crops under gross sown area in the district makes it a suitable candidate for promoting NMOOP. Solar pumps could meet irrigation needs for these crops and help farmers diversify their yields beyond cereals.

Parameter Value Percentile
Area under oilseeds as a share of total cropped area 34

Per Drop More Crop

In the district, crops suitable for drip and sprinkler irrigation occupy a relatively high proportion of gross cropped area, making it easy to adopt such high precision irrigation methods. Solar pumps, along with other efficient and precise water application devices, could be deployed under Per Drop More Crop to promote efficient irrigation.

Parameter Value Percentile
Area under crops suitable for drip and sprinkler irrigation as a share of total cropped area 36% 70

Shimoga, Karnataka
Summary
Number of operational holdings
213,711
Average size of operational holding (Ha)
1.26
No. of cultivators using diesel pumps
9,575
No. of cultivators using electric pumps
31,795
Parameters (value, percentile)
Unirrigated net sown area ('000 ha)
85
60
Area under horticulture crops as a share of gross cropped area
33%
89
Water Availability Index
1
100
Monthly per capita expenditure of rural agricultural households (INR)
1,883
87
Crop revenue per holding (INR)
1,314,584
100
No. of rural and semi-urban bank branches per 10,000 farmers
9.17
66
Medium and long-term institutional credit disbursed in a year (in INR Crore)
119.8
70
No. of calls made at Kisan Call Centre (between 1.1.2011 - 31.12.2015)
1,216
48
Level of farm mechanisation (tractors, harvesters, threshers per ha)
0.41
62

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Karnataka