Samastipur, Bihar | Solar Pumps Tool Made with Humane Club

Samastipur, Bihar

In the district, a relatively large proportion of the net sown area is unirrigated, indicating high irrigation demand. Overall, water availability for irrigation in the district (based on ground water development and long-term trends of water level decline) is within the safe limit, enhancing long-term sustainability of solar pumps. It has a relatively low penetration of banks in rural and semi-rural areas, impeding access to institutional credit for farmers. There is a comparatively high level of farm mechanization in the district, implying a positive outlook towards progressive technologies amongst the farmers. The district has a relatively high proportion of small and marginal farmers. The district appears in the group of districts, which are (very) highly vulnerable towards climate change, as per an index constructed by CRIDA.

Deployment Approaches

Approaches Feasibility
Individually owned off-grid solar pumps Limited Suitability
Solar based water as a service Suitable
Promote 1 HP and sub-HP pumps Suitable

Individually owned off-grid solar pumps

Limited Suitability

The district has ground water available within the safe limit and a comparatively high concentration of diesel pump users. However, low crop revenue per holding, and the relatively low disbursement of institutional credit would make it difficult to promote the private ownership of solar pumps here.

Parameter Value Percentile
Number of cultivators reporting use of diesel pumps 389,154 98
Water Availability Index 0.98 96
Crop revenue per holding (INR) 18,374 9
Medium and long term institutional credit disbursed in a year (in INR Crore) 19.7 46

Solar based water as a service

Suitable

Availability of groundwater within the safe limit, a relatively high proportion of unirrigated area, and a rather high concentration of small and marginal farmers in the district make the water-as-a-service model a potential way to promote solar-based irrigation. The model could help in improving irrigation equity, without requiring a farmer to bear an upfront cost to purchase a pump.

Parameter Value Percentile
Water Availability Index 0.98 96
Proportion of small and marginal cultivators 99% 96
Unirrigated net sown area as a share of total net sown area 91% 83

Promote 1 HP and sub-HP pumps

Suitable

1 HP and sub-HP pumps could help marginal farmers meet their needs in this district. A relatively high proportion of horticulture crops under gross cropped area, a rather high concentration of marginal farmers, a comparatively high disbursement of institutional credit to marginal farmers, and the availability of groundwater within the safe limit would drive the success of such small-sized pumps in the district. Such small pumps could also be put to use for lift irrigation, provided there is access to surface water.

Parameter Value Percentile
Area under horticulture crops as a share of gross cropped area 16% 73
Water Availability Index 0.98 96
Proportion of marginal cultivators 95% 97
Medium and long term institutional credit disbursed in a year (in INR Crore) 19.7 46

Leveraging Solar Pumps to Promote Policy Objectives

If you are deploying solar pumps in this district then you can further these policy objectives.

Har Khet ko Pani

A relatively high proportion of the net sown area in the district is unirrigated, indicating high irrigation demand. Solar pumps can help improve access to underground irrigation as part of Har_Khet_ko_Pani.

Parameter Value Percentile
Unirrigated net sown area as a share of total net sown area 91% 83

Doubling Farmers’ Income – Crop Intensity

A relatively high proportion of the district’s net sown area is unirrigated. Lack of access to irrigation is one of the major barriers to growing crops beyond two conventional seasons, rabi and kharif. Ensuring irrigation access through solar power will help improve cropping intensity and move towards the aim of doubling farmers’ income by 2022.

Parameter Value Percentile
Unirrigated net sown area as a share of total net sown area 91% 83

National Mission on Oilseeds and Oil Palm (NMOOP)

The relatively low share of oilseeds and oil palm crops under gross sown area in the district makes it a suitable candidate for promoting NMOOP. Solar pumps could meet irrigation needs for these crops and help farmers diversify their yields beyond cereals.

Parameter Value Percentile
Area under oilseeds as a share of total cropped area 3% 38

Climate Resilient Farming for Small Farms

Given the high concentration of small and marginal farmers—the most vulnerable group to climate change—and a high score on climate change vulnerability index provided by CRIDA*, the district is suitable for promoting climate resilient farming for small-sized farms. Solar pumps would assist in the same through low-carbon agriculture.

Parameter Value Percentile
Proportion of small and marginal cultivators 99% 96
Score on Climate Change Vulnerability Index 0.48 65

Samastipur, Bihar
Summary
Number of operational holdings
683,268
Average size of operational holding (Ha)
0.28
No. of cultivators using diesel pumps
389,154
No. of cultivators using electric pumps
72
Parameters (value, percentile)
Unirrigated net sown area ('000 ha)
147
73
Area under horticulture crops as a share of gross cropped area
16%
73
Water Availability Index
0.98
96
Monthly per capita expenditure of rural agricultural households (INR)
1,059
35
Crop revenue per holding (INR)
18,374
9
No. of rural and semi-urban bank branches per 10,000 farmers
4.2
16
Medium and long-term institutional credit disbursed in a year (in INR Crore)
19.7
46
No. of calls made at Kisan Call Centre (between 1.1.2011 - 31.12.2015)
3,724
84
Level of farm mechanisation (tractors, harvesters, threshers per ha)
3.28
98