Patna, Bihar | Solar Pumps Tool Made with Humane Club

Patna, Bihar

The average monthly per capita expenditure of rural agricultural households is relatively low for the district, suggesting poor purchasing capacity of the farmers here. The number of medium and long-term institutional loans disbursed in the district is comparatively small, suggesting poor availability of credit amongst farmers for potential investments. There is a comparatively high level of farm mechanization in the district, implying a positive outlook towards progressive technologies amongst the farmers. The district has a relatively high proportion of small and marginal farmers. The district appears in the group of districts, which are (very) highly vulnerable towards climate change, as per an index constructed by CRIDA.

Deployment Approaches

Approaches Feasibility
Individually owned off-grid solar pumps Not Suitable
Solar based water as a service Limited SUitability
Promote 1 HP and sub-HP pumps Limited Suitability

Individually owned off-grid solar pumps

Not Suitable

The district has a comparatively high concentration of diesel pump users. But, ground water availability is below the safe limit, crop revenue per holding is low, and disbursement of institutional credit is also relatively low, making it extremely difficult to promote the private ownership of solar pumps here.

Parameter Value Percentile
Number of cultivators reporting use of diesel pumps 209,931 95
Water Availability Index 0.75 59
Crop revenue per holding (INR) 10,078 3
Medium and long term institutional credit disbursed in a year (in INR Crore) 0.3 22

Solar based water as a service

Limited SUitability

The district has a relatively high concentration of small and marginal farmers, and a rather high proportion of unirrigated area, but groundwater availability is below the safe limit. Water conservation and efficient irrigation practices (such as drip irrigation) should be considered while promoting solar-based water as a service, in order to improve the economic viability of the model, increase water availability, and decrease the effective cost of irrigation in the district.

Parameter Value Percentile
Water Availability Index 0.75 59
Proportion of small and marginal cultivators 98% 93
Unirrigated net sown area as a share of total net sown area 70% 60

Promote 1 HP and sub-HP pumps

Limited Suitability

The district has a relatively high proportion of gross cropped area under horticulture crops and a rather high concentration of marginal farmers. But, groundwater availability in the district is below the safe limit, and disbursement of institutional credit to marginal farmers is comparatively low, making it very difficult to promote 1 HP and sub-HP pumps here. Promotion of such pumps must accompany support for marginal farmers (subsidies and loans), along with promotion of micro-irrigation.

Parameter Value Percentile
Area under horticulture crops as a share of gross cropped area 7% 53
Water Availability Index 0.75 59
Proportion of marginal cultivators 91% 93
Medium and long term institutional credit disbursed in a year (in INR Crore) 0.3 22

Leveraging Solar Pumps to Promote Policy Objectives

If you are deploying solar pumps in this district then you can further these policy objectives.

Har Khet ko Pani

A relatively high proportion of the net sown area in the district is unirrigated, indicating high irrigation demand. Solar pumps can help improve access to underground irrigation as part of Har_Khet_ko_Pani.

Parameter Value Percentile
Unirrigated net sown area as a share of total net sown area 70% 60

Doubling Farmers’ Income – Crop Intensity

A relatively high proportion of the district’s net sown area is unirrigated. Lack of access to irrigation is one of the major barriers to growing crops beyond two conventional seasons, rabi and kharif. Ensuring irrigation access through solar power will help improve cropping intensity and move towards the aim of doubling farmers’ income by 2022.

Parameter Value Percentile
Unirrigated net sown area as a share of total net sown area 70% 60

National Mission on Oilseeds and Oil Palm (NMOOP)

The relatively low share of oilseeds and oil palm crops under gross sown area in the district makes it a suitable candidate for promoting NMOOP. Solar pumps could meet irrigation needs for these crops and help farmers diversify their yields beyond cereals.

Parameter Value Percentile
Area under oilseeds as a share of total cropped area 2% 29

Climate Resilient Farming for Small Farms

Given the high concentration of small and marginal farmers—the most vulnerable group to climate change—and a high score on climate change vulnerability index provided by CRIDA*, the district is suitable for promoting climate resilient farming for small-sized farms. Solar pumps would assist in the same through low-carbon agriculture.

Parameter Value Percentile
Proportion of small and marginal cultivators 98% 93
Score on Climate Change Vulnerability Index 0.5 70

Patna, Bihar
Summary
Number of operational holdings
676,790
Average size of operational holding (Ha)
0.35
No. of cultivators using diesel pumps
209,931
No. of cultivators using electric pumps
220,224
Parameters (value, percentile)
Unirrigated net sown area ('000 ha)
166
76
Area under horticulture crops as a share of gross cropped area
7%
53
Water Availability Index
0.75
59
Monthly per capita expenditure of rural agricultural households (INR)
794
7
Crop revenue per holding (INR)
10,078
3
No. of rural and semi-urban bank branches per 10,000 farmers
5.47
32
Medium and long-term institutional credit disbursed in a year (in INR Crore)
0.3
22
No. of calls made at Kisan Call Centre (between 1.1.2011 - 31.12.2015)
2,877
75
Level of farm mechanisation (tractors, harvesters, threshers per ha)
4.53
99