Madhepura, Bihar | Solar Pumps Tool Made with Humane Club

Madhepura, Bihar

Overall, water availability for irrigation in the district (based on ground water development and long-term trends of water level decline) is within the safe limit, enhancing long-term sustainability of solar pumps. It has a relatively low penetration of banks in rural and semi-rural areas, impeding access to institutional credit for farmers. There is a comparatively high level of farm mechanization in the district, implying a positive outlook towards progressive technologies amongst the farmers. The district has a relatively high proportion of small and marginal farmers.

Deployment Approaches

Approaches Feasibility
Individually owned off-grid solar pumps Limited Suitability
Solarisation of feeders Suitable
Solar based water as a service Limited Suitability
Promote 1 HP and sub-HP pumps Limited Suitability
Solarisation of individual grid-connected pumps Suitable

Individually owned off-grid solar pumps

Limited Suitability

The district has ground water available within the safe limit and a comparatively high concentration of diesel pump users. However, low crop revenue per holding, and the relatively low disbursement of institutional credit would make it difficult to promote the private ownership of solar pumps here without significant government subsidy support.

Parameter Value Percentile
Number of cultivators reporting use of diesel pumps 261,984 96
Water Availability Index 0.77 65
Crop revenue per holding (INR) 24,140 14
Medium and long term institutional credit disbursed in a year (in INR Crore) 2.3 28

Solarisation of feeders

Suitable

Given the relatively high cost of power supply for the respective DISCOM, a comparatively high extent of feeder segregation, and a high penetration of electric pumps, solarisation of the feeders would be a recommended way to promote solar-powered irrigation in the district. It would ensure the rapid and cost effective solarisation of irrigation power at a large scale.

Parameter Value Percentile
Actual cost of power supply (INR/kWh) 6.03 51
Extent of feeder segregation
Proportion of cultivators reporting use of electric pumps 1% 21

Solar based water as a service

Limited Suitability

Groundwater availability in the district is within safe limit and the concentration of small and marginal farmers is comparatively high, but the proportion of unirrigated area is relatively low. A solar-based water service will have to compete with existing sources of irrigation.

Parameter Value Percentile
Water Availability Index 0.77 65
Proportion of small and marginal cultivators 97% 89
Unirrigated net sown area as a share of total net sown area 78% 68

Promote 1 HP and sub-HP pumps

Limited Suitability

The district has groundwater availability within safe limit and a rather high concentration of marginal farmers. However, a comparatively low disbursement of institutional credit to marginal farmers and a relatively low proportion of horticulture crops under gross cropped area make it difficult to promote 1 HP and sub-HP pumps here, unless government provide subsidy or loans support to marginal farmers for adoption of such pumps as well as promote more horticulture among such farmers.

Parameter Value Percentile
Area under horticulture crops as a share of gross cropped area 5% 49
Water Availability Index 0.77 65
Proportion of marginal cultivators 91% 93
Medium and long term institutional credit disbursed in a year (in INR Crore) 2.3 28

Solarisation of individual grid-connected pumps

Suitable

Given the relatively high rate of power subsidy for agriculture consumers, a comparatively high extent of feeder segregation, ground water available within the safe limits and a high penetration of electric pumps, solarisation of individual grid-connected pumps would be a recommended way to promote solar-powered irrigation in the district. It would ensure the rapid and cost effective solarisation of irrigation power at a large scale.

Parameter Value Percentile
Water Availability Index 0.77 65
Actual cost of power supply (INR/kWh) 6.03 51
Extent of feeder segregation

Leveraging Solar Pumps to Promote Policy Objectives

If you are deploying solar pumps in this district then you can further these policy objectives.

Doubling Farmers’ Income – Crop Diversification

In the district, horticulture crops occupy a relatively low proportion of gross cropped area, indicating an opportunity for growing more high value non-staple crops. Solar-powered irrigation could be an alternative source of reliable irrigation, making it easier to achieve crop diversification and enhance farmers’ incomes.

Parameter Value Percentile
Area under horticulture crops as a share of gross cropped area 5% 49

National Mission on Oilseeds and Oil Palm (NMOOP)

The relatively low share of oilseeds and oil palm crops under gross sown area in the district makes it a suitable candidate for promoting NMOOP. Solar pumps could meet irrigation needs for these crops and help farmers diversify their yields beyond cereals.

Parameter Value Percentile
Area under oilseeds as a share of total cropped area 21

Madhepura, Bihar
Summary
Number of operational holdings
362,208
Average size of operational holding (Ha)
0.38
No. of cultivators using diesel pumps
261,984
No. of cultivators using electric pumps
2,691
Parameters (value, percentile)
Unirrigated net sown area ('000 ha)
89
61
Area under horticulture crops as a share of gross cropped area
5%
49
Water Availability Index
0.77
65
Monthly per capita expenditure of rural agricultural households (INR)
1,307
57
Crop revenue per holding (INR)
24,140
14
No. of rural and semi-urban bank branches per 10,000 farmers
3.17
6
Medium and long-term institutional credit disbursed in a year (in INR Crore)
2.3
28
No. of calls made at Kisan Call Centre (between 1.1.2011 - 31.12.2015)
2,071
64
Level of farm mechanisation (tractors, harvesters, threshers per ha)
4.11
99

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Bihar