Kheri, Uttar Pradesh | Solar Pumps Tool Made with Humane Club

Kheri, Uttar Pradesh

It has a relatively small proportion of its net sown area unirrigated, indicating poor irrigation demand. Horticulture crops occupy a relatively low proportion of gross cropped area in the district, diminishing the economic viability of solar pumps here. Overall, water availability for irrigation in the district (based on ground water development and long-term trends of water level decline) is within the safe limit, enhancing long-term sustainability of solar pumps. It has a relatively low penetration of banks in rural and semi-rural areas, impeding access to institutional credit for farmers. The number of medium and long-term institutional loans disbursed in the district is comparatively large, suggesting the availability of credit amongst farmers for potential investments. There is a comparatively high level of farm mechanization in the district, implying a positive outlook towards progressive technologies amongst the farmers. The district has a relatively high proportion of small and marginal farmers. The district appears in the group of districts, which show (very) low vulnerability towards climate change, as per an index constructed by CRIDA.

Deployment Approaches

Approaches Feasibility
Individually owned off-grid solar pumps Suitable
Solarisation of feeders Limited Suitability
Solar based water as a service Limited Suitability
Promote 1 HP and sub-HP pumps Limited Suitability

Individually owned off-grid solar pumps

Suitable

Availability of groundwater within the safe limit, a comparatively high concentration of diesel pump users, a relatively high crop revenue per holding, and institutional credit disbursed in relatively large amounts in the district make it a suitable candidate for the promotion of solar-based irrigation through the private ownership of solar pumps. Private ownership provides easy and reliable access to irrigation for farmers.

Parameter Value Percentile
Number of cultivators reporting use of diesel pumps 154,179 91
Water Availability Index 1 100
Crop revenue per holding (INR) 128,036 68
Medium and long term institutional credit disbursed in a year (in INR Crore) 334.5 89

Solarisation of feeders

Limited Suitability

The district has a relatively high penetration of electric pumps, and its DISCOM has a rather high bulk power purchase rate, but the district has a comparatively low extent of feeder segregation. Solarisation of the feeders will only be possible once the district separates agricultural feeders from the rest.

Parameter Value Percentile
Power purchase rate for DISCOM (INR/kWh) 4.37 79
Extent of feeder segregation 0% 0
Proportion of cultivators reporting use of electric pumps 2% 29

Solar based water as a service

Limited Suitability

Groundwater availability in the district is within safe limit and the concentration of small and marginal farmers is comparatively high, but the proportion of unirrigated area is relatively low. A solar-based water service will have to compete with existing sources of irrigation.

Parameter Value Percentile
Water Availability Index 1 100
Proportion of small and marginal cultivators 90% 61
Unirrigated net sown area as a share of total net sown area 13% 15

Promote 1 HP and sub-HP pumps

Limited Suitability

The district has groundwater availability within safe limit, a rather high concentration of marginal farmers, and a comparatively high disbursement of institutional credit to marginal farmers, but the proportion gross cropped area under horticulture crops is relatively low. Farmers should be incentivised to grow horticulture crops based on the agro-economic suitability of the region and market linkages to improve their revenue, making small sized pumps viable, by improving their capacity utilisation.

Parameter Value Percentile
Area under horticulture crops as a share of gross cropped area 1% 19
Water Availability Index 1 100
Proportion of marginal cultivators 75% 67
Medium and long term institutional credit disbursed in a year (in INR Crore) 334.5 89

Leveraging Solar Pumps to Promote Policy Objectives

If you are deploying solar pumps in this district then you can further these policy objectives.

Doubling Farmers’ Income – Capital Investment

Given the high concentration of small and marginal farmers, and their relatively better access to institutional credit, the district is suitable for doubling farmers’ income through capital investment. Solar pumps could be one of the farm technologies to invest in for farmers, especially 1 HP or sub-HP pumps for marginal farmers.

Parameter Value Percentile
Proportion of small and marginal cultivators 90% 61
Medium and long-term institutional credit disbursed in a year to small and marginal cultivators (in INR Crore) 334.5 89

Doubling Farmers’ Income – Crop Diversification

In the district, horticulture crops occupy a relatively low proportion of gross cropped area, indicating an opportunity for growing more high value non-staple crops. Solar-powered irrigation could be an alternative source of reliable irrigation, making it easier to achieve crop diversification and enhance farmers’ incomes.

Parameter Value Percentile
Area under horticulture crops as a share of gross cropped area 1% 19

National Mission on Oilseeds and Oil Palm (NMOOP)

The relatively low share of oilseeds and oil palm crops under gross sown area in the district makes it a suitable candidate for promoting NMOOP. Solar pumps could meet irrigation needs for these crops and help farmers diversify their yields beyond cereals.

Parameter Value Percentile
Area under oilseeds as a share of total cropped area 5% 50

Per Drop More Crop

In the district, crops suitable for drip and sprinkler irrigation occupy a relatively high proportion of gross cropped area, making it easy to adopt such high precision irrigation methods. Solar pumps, along with other efficient and precise water application devices, could be deployed under Per Drop More Crop to promote efficient irrigation.

Parameter Value Percentile
Area under crops suitable for drip and sprinkler irrigation as a share of total cropped area 47% 83

Kheri, Uttar Pradesh
Summary
Number of operational holdings
611,571
Average size of operational holding (Ha)
0.82
No. of cultivators using diesel pumps
154,179
No. of cultivators using electric pumps
10,109
Parameters (value, percentile)
Unirrigated net sown area ('000 ha)
62
51
Area under horticulture crops as a share of gross cropped area
1%
19
Water Availability Index
1
100
Monthly per capita expenditure of rural agricultural households (INR)
1,082
37
Crop revenue per holding (INR)
128,036
68
No. of rural and semi-urban bank branches per 10,000 farmers
3.79
11
Medium and long-term institutional credit disbursed in a year (in INR Crore)
334.5
89
No. of calls made at Kisan Call Centre (between 1.1.2011 - 31.12.2015)
6,674
94
Level of farm mechanisation (tractors, harvesters, threshers per ha)
0.68
79