Kaushambi, Uttar Pradesh | Solar Pumps Tool Made with Humane Club

Kaushambi, Uttar Pradesh

It has a relatively small proportion of its net sown area unirrigated, indicating poor irrigation demand. There is a comparatively high level of farm mechanization in the district, implying a positive outlook towards progressive technologies amongst the farmers. The district has a relatively high proportion of small and marginal farmers. The district appears in the group of districts, which are (very) highly vulnerable towards climate change, as per an index constructed by CRIDA.

Deployment Approaches

Approaches Feasibility
Individually owned off-grid solar pumps Limited Suitability
Solarisation of feeders Suitable
Solar based water as a service Not Suitable
Promote 1 HP and sub-HP pumps Limited Suitability

Individually owned off-grid solar pumps

Limited Suitability

The district has high crop revenue per holding, and a high concentration of diesel pump users. But, disbursement of institutional credit is low and ground water availability is below the safe limit, making it very difficult to promote the private ownership of solar pumps here.

Parameter Value Percentile
Number of cultivators reporting use of diesel pumps 64,254 81
Water Availability Index 0.5 35
Crop revenue per holding (INR) 85,449 52
Medium and long term institutional credit disbursed in a year (in INR Crore) 0 0

Solarisation of feeders

Suitable

Given the relatively high bullk power purchase rate for the respective DISCOM, a comparatively high extent of feeder segregation, and a high penetration of electric pumps, solarisation of the feeders would be a recommended way to promote solar-powered irrigation in the district. It would ensure the rapid and cost effective solarisation of irrigation power at a large scale.

Parameter Value Percentile
Power purchase rate for DISCOM (INR/kWh) 4.37 79
Extent of feeder segregation 100% 69
Proportion of cultivators reporting use of electric pumps 6% 46

Solar based water as a service

Not Suitable

The concentration of small and marginal farmers is rather high in the district, but groundwater availability is below the safe limit. In addition, a relatively low proportion of unirrigated area makes it very difficult to promote solar-based irrigation through the water-as-a-service model here, unless it undercuts the price of water from existing sources, and improves water utilisation through promotion of micro-irrigation.

Parameter Value Percentile
Water Availability Index 0.5 35
Proportion of small and marginal cultivators 94% 76
Unirrigated net sown area as a share of total net sown area 25% 25

Promote 1 HP and sub-HP pumps

Limited Suitability

The district has a relatively high proportion of gross cropped area under horticulture crops and a rather high concentration of marginal farmers. But, groundwater availability in the district is below the safe limit, and disbursement of institutional credit to marginal farmers is comparatively low, making it very difficult to promote 1 HP and sub-HP pumps here. Promotion of such pumps must accompany support for marginal farmers (subsidies and loans), along with promotion of micro-irrigation.

Parameter Value Percentile
Area under horticulture crops as a share of gross cropped area 8% 58
Water Availability Index 0.5 35
Proportion of marginal cultivators 83% 82
Medium and long term institutional credit disbursed in a year (in INR Crore) 0 0

Leveraging Solar Pumps to Promote Policy Objectives

If you are deploying solar pumps in this district then you can further these policy objectives.

Doubling Farmers’ Income – Capital Investment

Given the high concentration of small and marginal farmers, and their relatively better access to institutional credit, the district is suitable for doubling farmers’ income through capital investment. Solar pumps could be one of the farm technologies to invest in for farmers, especially 1 HP or sub-HP pumps for marginal farmers.

Parameter Value Percentile
Proportion of small and marginal cultivators 94% 76
Medium and long-term institutional credit disbursed in a year to small and marginal cultivators (in INR Crore) 0 0

National Mission on Oilseeds and Oil Palm (NMOOP)

The relatively low share of oilseeds and oil palm crops under gross sown area in the district makes it a suitable candidate for promoting NMOOP. Solar pumps could meet irrigation needs for these crops and help farmers diversify their yields beyond cereals.

Parameter Value Percentile
Area under oilseeds as a share of total cropped area 3% 41

Climate Resilient Farming for Small Farms

Given the high concentration of small and marginal farmers—the most vulnerable group to climate change—and a high score on climate change vulnerability index provided by CRIDA*, the district is suitable for promoting climate resilient farming for small-sized farms. Solar pumps would assist in the same through low-carbon agriculture.

Parameter Value Percentile
Proportion of small and marginal cultivators 94% 76
Score on Climate Change Vulnerability Index 0.58 87

Kaushambi, Uttar Pradesh
Summary
Number of operational holdings
214,512
Average size of operational holding (Ha)
0.66
No. of cultivators using diesel pumps
64,254
No. of cultivators using electric pumps
13,620
Parameters (value, percentile)
Unirrigated net sown area ('000 ha)
33
35
Area under horticulture crops as a share of gross cropped area
8%
58
Water Availability Index
0.5
35
Monthly per capita expenditure of rural agricultural households (INR)
1,065
35
Crop revenue per holding (INR)
85,449
52
No. of rural and semi-urban bank branches per 10,000 farmers
6.01
39
Medium and long-term institutional credit disbursed in a year (in INR Crore)
0
0
No. of calls made at Kisan Call Centre (between 1.1.2011 - 31.12.2015)
1,603
56
Level of farm mechanisation (tractors, harvesters, threshers per ha)
0.86
87