Katihar, Bihar | Solar Pumps Tool Made with Humane Club

Katihar, Bihar

It has a relatively small proportion of its net sown area unirrigated, indicating poor irrigation demand. It has a relatively low penetration of banks in rural and semi-rural areas, impeding access to institutional credit for farmers. There is a comparatively high level of farm mechanization in the district, implying a positive outlook towards progressive technologies amongst the farmers. The district has a relatively high proportion of small and marginal farmers. The district appears in the group of districts, which are (very) highly vulnerable towards climate change, as per an index constructed by CRIDA.

Deployment Approaches

Approaches Feasibility
Individually owned off-grid solar pumps Not Suitable
Solar based water as a service Not Suitable
Promote 1 HP and sub-HP pumps Limited Suitability

Individually owned off-grid solar pumps

Not Suitable

The district has a comparatively high concentration of diesel pump users. But, ground water availability is below the safe limit, crop revenue per holding is low, and disbursement of institutional credit is also relatively low, making it extremely difficult to promote the private ownership of solar pumps here.

Parameter Value Percentile
Number of cultivators reporting use of diesel pumps 369,503 98
Water Availability Index 0.73 59
Crop revenue per holding (INR) 33,307 22
Medium and long term institutional credit disbursed in a year (in INR Crore) 16.7 43

Solar based water as a service

Not Suitable

The concentration of small and marginal farmers is rather high in the district, but groundwater availability is below the safe limit. In addition, a relatively low proportion of unirrigated area makes it very difficult to promote solar-based irrigation through the water-as-a-service model here, unless it undercuts the price of water from existing sources, and improves water utilisation through promotion of micro-irrigation.

Parameter Value Percentile
Water Availability Index 0.73 59
Proportion of small and marginal cultivators 96% 84
Unirrigated net sown area as a share of total net sown area 25% 25

Promote 1 HP and sub-HP pumps

Limited Suitability

The district has a relatively high proportion of gross cropped area under horticulture crops, a high concentration of marginal farmers and a comparatively high disbursement of institutional credit to marginal farmers, but groundwater availability is below the safe limit. Water conservation and efficient irrigation practices (such as drip irrigation) should be promoted to improve the viability of small capacity pumps.

Parameter Value Percentile
Area under horticulture crops as a share of gross cropped area 13% 67
Water Availability Index 0.73 59
Proportion of marginal cultivators 90% 91
Medium and long term institutional credit disbursed in a year (in INR Crore) 16.7 43

Leveraging Solar Pumps to Promote Policy Objectives

If you are deploying solar pumps in this district then you can further these policy objectives.

National Mission on Oilseeds and Oil Palm (NMOOP)

The relatively low share of oilseeds and oil palm crops under gross sown area in the district makes it a suitable candidate for promoting NMOOP. Solar pumps could meet irrigation needs for these crops and help farmers diversify their yields beyond cereals.

Parameter Value Percentile
Area under oilseeds as a share of total cropped area 2% 35

Climate Resilient Farming for Small Farms

Given the high concentration of small and marginal farmers—the most vulnerable group to climate change—and a high score on climate change vulnerability index provided by CRIDA*, the district is suitable for promoting climate resilient farming for small-sized farms. Solar pumps would assist in the same through low-carbon agriculture.

Parameter Value Percentile
Proportion of small and marginal cultivators 96% 84
Score on Climate Change Vulnerability Index 0.51 72

Katihar, Bihar
Summary
Number of operational holdings
419,624
Average size of operational holding (Ha)
0.49
No. of cultivators using diesel pumps
369,503
No. of cultivators using electric pumps
1,782
Parameters (value, percentile)
Unirrigated net sown area ('000 ha)
42
42
Area under horticulture crops as a share of gross cropped area
13%
67
Water Availability Index
0.73
59
Monthly per capita expenditure of rural agricultural households (INR)
1,459
70
Crop revenue per holding (INR)
33,307
22
No. of rural and semi-urban bank branches per 10,000 farmers
3.1
5
Medium and long-term institutional credit disbursed in a year (in INR Crore)
16.7
43
No. of calls made at Kisan Call Centre (between 1.1.2011 - 31.12.2015)
1,976
63
Level of farm mechanisation (tractors, harvesters, threshers per ha)
3.23
97