Buxar, Bihar | Solar Pumps Tool Made with Humane Club

Buxar, Bihar

It has a relatively small proportion of its net sown area unirrigated, indicating poor irrigation demand. Overall, water availability for irrigation in the district (based on ground water development and long-term trends of water level decline) is within the safe limit, enhancing long-term sustainability of solar pumps. The average monthly per capita expenditure of rural agricultural households is relatively low for the district, suggesting poor purchasing capacity of the farmers here. There is a comparatively high level of farm mechanization in the district, implying a positive outlook towards progressive technologies amongst the farmers. The district has a relatively high proportion of small and marginal farmers. The district appears in the group of districts, which are (very) highly vulnerable towards climate change, as per an index constructed by CRIDA.

Deployment Approaches

Approaches Feasibility
Individually owned off-grid solar pumps Limited Suitability
Solar based water as a service Limited Suitability
Promote 1 HP and sub-HP pumps Suitable

Individually owned off-grid solar pumps

Limited Suitability

The district has ground water available within the safe limit and a comparatively high concentration of diesel pump users. However, low crop revenue per holding, and the relatively low disbursement of institutional credit would make it difficult to promote the private ownership of solar pumps here.

Parameter Value Percentile
Number of cultivators reporting use of diesel pumps 165,427 92
Water Availability Index 0.91 83
Crop revenue per holding (INR) 35,472 24
Medium and long term institutional credit disbursed in a year (in INR Crore) 7.4 35

Solar based water as a service

Limited Suitability

Groundwater availability in the district is within safe limit and the concentration of small and marginal farmers is comparatively high, but the proportion of unirrigated area is relatively low. A solar-based water service will have to compete with existing sources of irrigation.

Parameter Value Percentile
Water Availability Index 0.91 83
Proportion of small and marginal cultivators 90% 61
Unirrigated net sown area as a share of total net sown area 17% 19

Promote 1 HP and sub-HP pumps

Suitable

1 HP and sub-HP pumps could help marginal farmers meet their needs in this district. A relatively high proportion of horticulture crops under gross cropped area, a rather high concentration of marginal farmers, a comparatively high disbursement of institutional credit to marginal farmers, and the availability of groundwater within the safe limit would drive the success of such small-sized pumps in the district. Such small pumps could also be put to use for lift irrigation, provided there is access to surface water.

Parameter Value Percentile
Area under horticulture crops as a share of gross cropped area 7% 53
Water Availability Index 0.91 83
Proportion of marginal cultivators 79% 74
Medium and long term institutional credit disbursed in a year (in INR Crore) 7.4 35

Leveraging Solar Pumps to Promote Policy Objectives

If you are deploying solar pumps in this district then you can further these policy objectives.

National Mission on Oilseeds and Oil Palm (NMOOP)

The relatively low share of oilseeds and oil palm crops under gross sown area in the district makes it a suitable candidate for promoting NMOOP. Solar pumps could meet irrigation needs for these crops and help farmers diversify their yields beyond cereals.

Parameter Value Percentile
Area under oilseeds as a share of total cropped area 1% 16

Climate Resilient Farming for Small Farms

Given the high concentration of small and marginal farmers—the most vulnerable group to climate change—and a high score on climate change vulnerability index provided by CRIDA*, the district is suitable for promoting climate resilient farming for small-sized farms. Solar pumps would assist in the same through low-carbon agriculture.

Parameter Value Percentile
Proportion of small and marginal cultivators 90% 61
Score on Climate Change Vulnerability Index 0.5 70

Buxar, Bihar
Summary
Number of operational holdings
177,128
Average size of operational holding (Ha)
0.77
No. of cultivators using diesel pumps
165,427
No. of cultivators using electric pumps
911
Parameters (value, percentile)
Unirrigated net sown area ('000 ha)
19
24
Area under horticulture crops as a share of gross cropped area
7%
53
Water Availability Index
0.91
83
Monthly per capita expenditure of rural agricultural households (INR)
820
9
Crop revenue per holding (INR)
35,472
24
No. of rural and semi-urban bank branches per 10,000 farmers
6.66
45
Medium and long-term institutional credit disbursed in a year (in INR Crore)
7.4
35
No. of calls made at Kisan Call Centre (between 1.1.2011 - 31.12.2015)
1,147
46
Level of farm mechanisation (tractors, harvesters, threshers per ha)
1.48
94