Balrampur, Uttar Pradesh | Solar Pumps Tool Made with Humane Club

Balrampur, Uttar Pradesh

Overall, water availability for irrigation in the district (based on ground water development and long-term trends of water level decline) is within the safe limit, enhancing long-term sustainability of solar pumps. It has a relatively low penetration of banks in rural and semi-rural areas, impeding access to institutional credit for farmers. There is a comparatively high level of farm mechanization in the district, implying a positive outlook towards progressive technologies amongst the farmers. The district has a relatively high proportion of small and marginal farmers. The district appears in the group of districts, which are (very) highly vulnerable towards climate change, as per an index constructed by CRIDA.

Deployment Approaches

Approaches Feasibility
Individually owned off-grid solar pumps Limited Suitability
Solarisation of feeders Limited Suitability
Solar based water as a service Suitable
Promote 1 HP and sub-HP pumps Limited Suitability

Individually owned off-grid solar pumps

Limited Suitability

The district has ground water available within the safe limit and a comparatively high concentration of diesel pump users. However, low crop revenue per holding, and the relatively low disbursement of institutional credit would make it difficult to promote the private ownership of solar pumps here.

Parameter Value Percentile
Number of cultivators reporting use of diesel pumps 122,829 89
Water Availability Index 1 100
Crop revenue per holding (INR) 60,431 40
Medium and long term institutional credit disbursed in a year (in INR Crore) 8.2 36

Solarisation of feeders

Limited Suitability

The district has a relatively high penetration of electric pumps, and its DISCOM has a rather high bulk power purchase rate, but the district has a comparatively low extent of feeder segregation. Solarisation of the feeders will only be possible once the district separates agricultural feeders from the rest.

Parameter Value Percentile
Power purchase rate for DISCOM (INR/kWh) 4.33 76
Extent of feeder segregation 0% 0
Proportion of cultivators reporting use of electric pumps 6% 46

Solar based water as a service

Suitable

Availability of groundwater within the safe limit, a relatively high proportion of unirrigated area, and a rather high concentration of small and marginal farmers in the district make the water-as-a-service model a potential way to promote solar-based irrigation. The model could help in improving irrigation equity, without requiring a farmer to bear an upfront cost to purchase a pump.

Parameter Value Percentile
Water Availability Index 1 100
Proportion of small and marginal cultivators 93% 71
Unirrigated net sown area as a share of total net sown area 66% 55

Promote 1 HP and sub-HP pumps

Limited Suitability

The district has groundwater availability within safe limit, a rather high concentration of marginal farmers, and a comparatively high disbursement of institutional credit to marginal farmers, but the proportion gross cropped area under horticulture crops is relatively low. Farmers should be incentivised to grow horticulture crops based on the agro-economic suitability of the region and market linkages to improve their revenue, making small sized pumps viable, by improving their capacity utilisation.

Parameter Value Percentile
Area under horticulture crops as a share of gross cropped area 2% 27
Water Availability Index 1 100
Proportion of marginal cultivators 79% 74
Medium and long term institutional credit disbursed in a year (in INR Crore) 8.2 36

Leveraging Solar Pumps to Promote Policy Objectives

If you are deploying solar pumps in this district then you can further these policy objectives.

Har Khet ko Pani

A relatively high proportion of the net sown area in the district is unirrigated, indicating high irrigation demand. Solar pumps can help improve access to underground irrigation as part of Har_Khet_ko_Pani.

Parameter Value Percentile
Unirrigated net sown area as a share of total net sown area 66% 55

Doubling Farmers’ Income – Capital Investment

Given the high concentration of small and marginal farmers, and their relatively better access to institutional credit, the district is suitable for doubling farmers’ income through capital investment. Solar pumps could be one of the farm technologies to invest in for farmers, especially 1 HP or sub-HP pumps for marginal farmers.

Parameter Value Percentile
Proportion of small and marginal cultivators 93% 71
Medium and long-term institutional credit disbursed in a year to small and marginal cultivators (in INR Crore) 8.2 36

Doubling Farmers’ Income – Crop Intensity

A relatively high proportion of the district’s net sown area is unirrigated. Lack of access to irrigation is one of the major barriers to growing crops beyond two conventional seasons, rabi and kharif. Ensuring irrigation access through solar power will help improve cropping intensity and move towards the aim of doubling farmers’ income by 2022.

Parameter Value Percentile
Unirrigated net sown area as a share of total net sown area 66% 55

Doubling Farmers’ Income – Crop Diversification

In the district, horticulture crops occupy a relatively low proportion of gross cropped area, indicating an opportunity for growing more high value non-staple crops. Solar-powered irrigation could be an alternative source of reliable irrigation, making it easier to achieve crop diversification and enhance farmers’ incomes.

Parameter Value Percentile
Area under horticulture crops as a share of gross cropped area 2% 27

Climate Resilient Farming for Small Farms

Given the high concentration of small and marginal farmers—the most vulnerable group to climate change—and a high score on climate change vulnerability index provided by CRIDA*, the district is suitable for promoting climate resilient farming for small-sized farms. Solar pumps would assist in the same through low-carbon agriculture.

Parameter Value Percentile
Proportion of small and marginal cultivators 93% 71
Score on Climate Change Vulnerability Index 0.52 75

Per Drop More Crop

In the district, crops suitable for drip and sprinkler irrigation occupy a relatively high proportion of gross cropped area, making it easy to adopt such high precision irrigation methods. Solar pumps, along with other efficient and precise water application devices, could be deployed under Per Drop More Crop to promote efficient irrigation.

Parameter Value Percentile
Area under crops suitable for drip and sprinkler irrigation as a share of total cropped area 28% 59

Balrampur, Uttar Pradesh
Summary
Number of operational holdings
294,962
Average size of operational holding (Ha)
0.8
No. of cultivators using diesel pumps
122,829
No. of cultivators using electric pumps
17,394
Parameters (value, percentile)
Unirrigated net sown area ('000 ha)
154
74
Area under horticulture crops as a share of gross cropped area
2%
27
Water Availability Index
1
100
Monthly per capita expenditure of rural agricultural households (INR)
1,023
30
Crop revenue per holding (INR)
60,431
40
No. of rural and semi-urban bank branches per 10,000 farmers
4.92
25
Medium and long-term institutional credit disbursed in a year (in INR Crore)
8.2
36
No. of calls made at Kisan Call Centre (between 1.1.2011 - 31.12.2015)
2344
69
Level of farm mechanisation (tractors, harvesters, threshers per ha)
0.71
81